Vital and vulnerable functions
The Delta Programme focuses special attention on vital and vulnerable functions, i.e., functions that are crucial with respect to disaster control in the event of a flood, or functions that when flooded could entail serious damage to people, the environment, or the economy. The Delta Decision on Spatial Adaptation states that the national government is responsible for ensuring that the flood protection of national vital and vulnerable functions will have been improved by no later than 2050.
In many cases, governments and businesses are unaware of flood risks. As a result, aspects of flood risk management are often overlooked in the selection of locations, the planning, and the construction method used for vital and vulnerable functions. For example, flood risks are (unintentionally) increased by the current tendency in spatial policy to locate vital objects such as electricity substations out of sight.
In order to effectively tackle this issue, the sectors need to be aware of flood risks, and take them into account in their operational management and (replacement) investments. They are gradually getting there. The approach is focused on the following functions/components; this is where the potential impact of a flood will be most severe.
The lack of protection of these vital and vulnerable functions may have serious consequences. This is illustrated by situations that have arisen abroad. For example, in 2012 the infrastructure in the United States was massively disrupted by hurricane Sandy. Floods inundated a large number of underground subway stations. All three New York airports were closed because the runways were flooded. In addition, the power failed at many locations, leaving more than two million households without electricity, three-quarters of which were in New York. Furthermore, a substantial number of hospitals had to close their doors, which overcrowded the other hospitals. One month after the hurricane, the total damage was calculated at 42 billion dollars.
The Delta Decision on Spatial Adaptation (September 2014) comprises agreements (pdf, 17 MB) to improve the flood protection of thirteen national vital and vulnerable functions, with the aim of having the Netherlands water-resilient by no later than 2050. The agreements are categorised into three steps, that tie in with the system used in the Delta Decision on Spatial Adaptation, and together constitute the strategy underpinning the agreements:
- Analysis: analysis of the vulnerability. Together with the sectors concerned, the Ministries responsible were to provide insight into the vulnerability and chain dependency by no later than 2015 (with the exception of waste water and the chemical industry, for which the deadline is 2017).
- Ambition: the translation of the analysis into a broadly supported ambition and strategy featuring concrete goals. Before 2020, the Ministries responsible will have policy and supervision in place in order to achieve the ambition agreed upon, wherever necessary safeguarded by agreements with the sectors and/or regulations.
- Action: before 2050, the sectors will have taken measures, including factoring in flood risks in their investment decisions.
The progress is monitored in annual reports.
The infographic below shows the progress as of mid-2016.
December 2016 saw a first impetus to setting down a joint ambition level.
A successful national approach also needs regional governments. After all, they are responsible for embedding strategies into spatial planning (zoning plans), for granting permits, and for enforcing sectoral legislation. Furthermore, it is up to the regional governments to set down their own ambitions regarding the water resilience of their vital and vulnerable functions. For a number of functions, the delineation between national and regional vital and vulnerable functions still needs to be outlined. This requires sectoral know-how about the operation of the grids and objects. Several regions, including Zeeland, Noord-Holland, Utrecht, and Overijssel, have already embarked on mapping out the required knowledge.
More information on the approach implemented in these regions is provided here.